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当前位置:首页 >>新闻中心 >> 钢制阀门的内件材料
内件材料的选用原则是根据主体材料的情况、介质特性、结构特点以及零件所起的作用、受力情况综合考虑的。对于常规的通用阀门在标准已规定了内件材料或规定了几种材料由设计者根据具体情况选用。对于一些有特殊要求的阀门,如高温、高压、介质有腐蚀等工况条件,则需按工况条件选择内件材料。 The selection principle of internals is based on the situation of main materials, media characteristics, structural characteristics and the role and stress of parts. For conventional valves, internal materials are specified in the standard or several materials are selected by designers according to specific conditions. For some special requirements of valves, such as high temperature, high pressure, corrosive medium and other working conditions, internal materials should be selected according to working conditions. 1、关闭件密封面材料 1, sealing surface materials for closed parts 关闭件即闸板(阀瓣)、阀座。关闭件的密封面是阀门的主要工作面之一,材料选择是否合理以及它的质量状况直接影响阀门的功能和使用寿命。 The shutter is the gate (valve disc) and the seat. The sealing surface of the closure is one of the main working faces of the valve. Whether the material selection is reasonable and its quality directly affects the function and service life of the valve. 1.1 关闭件密封面的工作条件 1.1 working conditions for sealing surface of closed parts 由于阀门用途十分广泛,因此阀门密封面的工作条件差异很大。压力可以从真空到超高压,温度可以从-269℃到816℃,有些工作温度可达1200℃,工作介质从非腐蚀介质到各种酸碱等强腐蚀性介质。从密封面的受力情况来看,它受挤压和剪切。从磨擦学的角度来看,有磨拉磨损、腐蚀磨损、表面疲劳磨损、冲蚀等等。因此,应该根据不同的工作条件选择相适应的密封面材料。 Due to the wide use of valves, the working conditions of valve sealing surfaces vary greatly. The pressure can be from vacuum to ultra high pressure, the temperature can be from -269 C to 816 C, some working temperatures can reach 1200 degrees C, and the working medium from non corrosive medium to various acid and alkali and other strong corrosive medium. From the force condition of the sealing surface, it is extruded and cut. From the friction point of view, there are abrasive wear, corrosive wear, surface fatigue wear, erosion and so on. Therefore, suitable sealing surface materials should be chosen according to different working conditions. (1)磨粒磨损 (1) abrasive wear 磨粒磨损是指粗糙的硬表面在软表面上滑动时出现的磨损。硬材料压入较软的材料表面,在接触表面就会划出一条微小的沟槽,此沟槽所脱落的材料以碎屑或疏松粒子的形式被推离物体的表面。 Abrasive wear is the wear that occurs when a rough hard surface slips on a soft surface. When hard material is pressed into the surface of a soft material, a tiny grooves will be drawn on the contact surface, and the material shedded by the groove is pushed away from the surface of the object in the form of debris or loose particles. (2)腐蚀磨损 (2) corrosion wear 金属表面腐蚀时产生一层氧化物,这层氧化物通常覆盖在受到腐蚀作用的部位上,这样就能减慢对金属的进一步腐蚀。但是,如果发生滑动的话,就会清除掉表面的氧化物,使裸露出来的金属表面受到进一步的腐蚀。 A layer of oxide is produced when a metal surface is corroded, which is usually covered by a corrosive part, which slows down further corrosion of the metal. However, if slippage occurs, the oxide on the surface will be removed and the exposed metal surface will be further corroded. (3)表面疲劳磨损 (3) surface fatigue wear 反复循环加载和卸载会使表面或表面下层产生疲劳裂纹,在表面形成碎片和凹坑,最终导致表面的破坏。 Repeated cyclic loading and unloading will cause fatigue cracks on the surface or lower surface, resulting in debris and pits on the surface, resulting in surface damage. (4)冲蚀 (4) erosion 材料的损环是由锐利的粒子冲撞物体而产生的,它与磨粒磨损相似,但表面很粗糙。 The damage of materials is caused by sharp particles colliding with objects. It is similar to abrasive wear, but the surface is rough. (5)擦伤 (5) bruise 擦伤是指密封面相对运动的过程中,材料因摩擦引起的破坏。 Abrade refers to the damage caused by friction in the process of relative movement of the cover. 1.2 对密封面材料的要求 1.2 requirements for sealing surface materials 理想的密封面要耐腐蚀、抗冲蚀、耐擦伤、有足够的挤压强度、在高温下有足够的抗氧化性和抗热疲劳性、密封面与本体有相近的线膨胀系数、有良好的焊接性能与加工性能。 The ideal sealing surface should be corrosion resistant, erosion resistant, abrasion resistant, sufficient extrusion strength, sufficient oxidation resistance and thermal fatigue resistance under high temperature, close linear expansion coefficient of sealing surface to the body, good welding performance and processing property. 上述的这些对密封面材料的要求只是个理想状态,不可能有这样十全十美的材料。因此,选材要视具体情况解决主要矛盾。 The above requirements for sealing materials are only ideal, and there is no such perfect material. Therefore, the main contradiction should be resolved according to the specific circumstances. 1.3 密封面材料的种类 1.3 types of sealing surface materials 常用的密封面材料分为两大类:软质材料和硬质材料。软质材料为各种橡胶、尼龙、氟塑料等。硬质材料为各种金属和合金。 Commonly used sealing surface materials can be divided into two categories: soft materials and hard materials. Soft materials are all kinds of rubber, nylon, fluoroplastics and so on. Hard materials are all kinds of metals and alloys.
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